Office of the Spokesperson
The Department of State released today Foreign Relations of the United States, 1981–1988, Volume IV, Soviet Union, January 1983–March 1985.
This volume is part of a subseries of volumes of the Foreign Relations series that documents the foreign policy decisions of the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The focus of the volume is on the development of the Reagan administration’s policies toward the Soviet Union from January 1983 to March 1985.
The documentation demonstrates how administration officials developed a four-part agenda to deal with the Soviet Union on arms control, human rights, regional issues, and bilateral relations, and then promoted U.S. positions on these various issues during meetings with Soviet officials. The volume documents several Cold War flashpoints during the contentious months of 1983: the announcement in March 1983 of Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), the downing of the KAL 007 airliner by the Soviet Union on August 31, 1983, and the deployments of INF missiles to several NATO allied countries in late November 1983, which led to the Soviet walkout of arms control negotiations in Geneva. The volume also presents selective documentation related to the 1983 Soviet “War Scare” and the November 1983 NATO nuclear exercise, Able Archer (see Appendix A). Even with these challenges, Secretary of State George Shultz and others pressed to keep moving ahead with the four-part agenda and promote greater dialogue in U.S.-Soviet relations. This culminated in an agreement to open new arms control negotiations, the Nuclear and Space talks, on three tracks: START, INF, and Defense and Space, starting in March 1985.
This volume was compiled and edited by Elizabeth C. Charles. The volume and this press release are available on the Office of the Historian website at https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1981-88v04. Copies of the volume will be available for purchase from the U.S. Government Printing Office online at (GPO S/N 044-000-02705-4; ISBN 978-0-16-095828-1), or by calling toll-free 1-866-512-1800 (D.C. area 202-512-1800). For further information, contact email@example.com.
- South Florida Residents Convicted of Attempting to Illegally Export Controlled Items to LibyaBy Sam NewsOctober 22, 2021A federal jury convicted a pair of Florida residents yesterday for their roles in an illegal exports scheme. According to court documents and evidence presented at trial, Peter Sotis, 57, of Delray Beach, and Emilie Voissem, 45, of Sunrise, participated in a scheme to cause the illegal export of rebreather diving equipment to Libya in August 2016.[Read More…]
- Nuclear Weapons: Action Needed to Address the W80-4 Warhead Program’s Schedule ConstraintsBy Sam NewsJuly 30, 2020The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a separately organized agency within the Department of Energy (DOE), has identified a range of risks facing the W80-4 nuclear warhead life extension program (LEP)—including risks related to developing new technologies and manufacturing processes as well as reestablishing dormant production capabilities. NNSA is managing these risks using a variety of processes and tools, such as a classified risk database. However, NNSA has introduced potential risk to the program by adopting a date (September 2025) for the delivery of the program's first production unit (FPU) that is more than 1 year earlier than the date projected by the program's own schedule risk analysis process (see figure). NNSA and Department of Defense (DOD) officials said that they adopted the September 2025 date partly because the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2015 specifies that NNSA must deliver the first warhead unit by the end of fiscal year 2025, as well as to free up resources for future LEPs. However, the statute allows DOE to obtain an extension, and, according to best practices identified in GAO's prior work, program schedules should avoid date constraints that do not reflect program realities. Adopting an FPU date more consistent with the date range identified as realistic in the W80-4 program's schedule risk analysis, or justifying an alternative date based on other factors, would allow NNSA to better inform decision makers and improve alignment between schedules for the W80-4 program and DOD's long-range standoff missile (LRSO) program. W80-4 Life Extension Program Phases and Milestone Dates NNSA substantially incorporated best practices in developing the preliminary lifecycle cost estimate for the W80-4 LEP, as reflected in the LEP's weapon design and cost report. GAO assessed the W80-4 program's cost estimate of $11.2 billion against the four characteristics of a high quality, reliable cost estimate: comprehensive, well-documented, accurate, and credible. To develop a comprehensive cost estimate, NNSA instituted processes to help ensure consistency across the program. The program also provided detailed documentation to substantiate its estimate and assumptions. To help ensure accuracy, the cost estimate drew on historic data from prior LEPs. Finally, to support a credible estimate, NNSA reconciled the program estimate with an independent cost estimate. GAO considers a cost estimate to be reliable if the overall assessment ratings for each of the four characteristics are substantially or fully met—as was the case with the W80-4 program's cost estimate in its weapon design and cost report, which substantially met each characteristic. To maintain and modernize the U.S. nuclear arsenal, NNSA and DOD conduct LEPs. In 2014, they began an LEP to produce a warhead, the W80-4, to be carried on the LRSO missile. In February 2019, NNSA adopted an FPU delivery date of fiscal year 2025 for the W80-4 LEP, at an estimated cost of about $11.2 billion over the life of the program. The explanatory statement accompanying the 2018 appropriation included a provision for GAO to review the W80-4 LEP. This report examines, among other objectives, (1) the risks NNSA has identified for the W80-4 LEP, and processes it has established to manage them, and (2) the extent to which NNSA's lifecycle cost estimate for the LEP aligned with best practices. GAO reviewed NNSA's risk management database and other program information; visited four NNSA sites; interviewed NNSA and DOD officials; and assessed the program's cost estimate using best practices established in prior GAO work. GAO is making two recommendations, including that NNSA adopt a W80-4 program FPU delivery date based on the program's schedule risk analysis, or document its justification for not doing so. NNSA generally disagreed with GAO's recommendations. GAO continues to believe that its recommendations are valid, as discussed in the report. For more information, contact Allison B. Bawden at (202) 512-3841 or firstname.lastname@example.org.[Read More…]
- DRL Supporting Sudan’s Democratic TransitionBy Sam NewsSeptember 27, 2020Bureau of Democracy, [Read More…]
- Deputy Attorney General Jeffrey A. Rosen Delivers Remarks at Announcement of Results of Operation DisruptorBy Sam NewsSeptember 22, 2020Good morning. I am pleased to be joined today by FBI Director Christopher Wray, DEA Acting Administrator Timothy Shea, ICE Acting Deputy Director Derek Benner, and Chief Postal Inspector Gary Barksdale.[Read More…]
- Laredo man admits to smuggling meth in fire extinguishersBy Sam NewsIn Justice NewsJuly 25, 2021A 40-year-old Laredo man [Read More…]
- Antitrust Division and Fellow Members of the Multilateral Pharmaceutical Merger Task Force Seek Public InputBy Sam NewsMay 11, 2021The U.S. Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division is pleased to be a part of the Multilateral Pharmaceutical Merger Task Force (Task Force), along with its counterpart competition enforcement agencies — the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the Canadian Competition Bureau, the European Commission Directorate General for Competition, the United Kingdom’s Competition and Markets Authority, and Offices of State Attorneys General.[Read More…]
- Deutsche Bank Agrees to Pay over $130 Million to Resolve Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Fraud CaseBy Sam NewsJanuary 8, 2021Deutsche Bank Aktiengesellschaft (Deutsche Bank or the Company) has agreed to pay more than $130 million to resolve the government’s investigation into violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and a separate investigation into a commodities fraud scheme.[Read More…]
- Nuclear Triad: DOD and DOE Face Challenges Mitigating Risks to U.S. Deterrence EffortsBy Sam NewsMay 6, 2021What GAO Found The Department of Defense (DOD) plans to replace or modernize existing triad platforms including submarines, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and bomber aircraft, as well as many of the nuclear command, control, and communication systems that facilitate control of them (see below). The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to modernize its nuclear infrastructure to life extend and produce warheads and bombs. DOD will be challenged to meet some U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) operational needs with existing triad systems, shown below, through the end of their service lives. DOD must manage shortfalls in quantities of systems that it can field and capability limitations that reduce effectiveness of these systems. For example, the Navy will have to carefully manage resources to meet USSTRATCOM's operational requirements for the Ohio class submarine. Further, DOE faces a long-term sustainment challenge with one of its bombs, the B83-1. Existing Nuclear Triad Platforms DOD and DOE are working to replace triad systems nearing retirement, but these replacement programs face schedule risks that could exacerbate challenges with existing triad systems. Replacement programs have risk factors that include concurrency between phases of acquisition programs from development through production, immature technologies, and limited schedule margin. For example, The Ground Based Strategic Deterrent program includes limited schedule margin for testing, and if it fails a major test event it would likely delay initial fielding. The schedules for DOE's life extension programs are highly dependent on the availability of suitable facilities to manufacture, assemble, and assess bomb and warhead components. However, many DOE facilities needed for these efforts are outdated or obsolete, as more than half of DOE's facilities are over 40 years old. DOD and DOE have limited ability to mitigate risks to the efficacy of the nuclear deterrent with their current strategy, and are beginning to consider alternatives. Why GAO Did This Study The 2018 Nuclear Posture Review indicates that DOD's highest priority is the nuclear deterrent, made up of sea, land, and air legs—referred to as the nuclear triad. DOD has reported that due to prior delays and challenges with aging nuclear triad systems, there is little to no margin for delaying replacement systems without incurring risk to the nuclear deterrent. Similarly, DOE faces a demanding schedule for infrastructure projects and programs for the life extension and production of warheads and bombs. In this report, GAO examines (1) the challenges DOD and DOE face in meeting operational needs with existing triad systems; (2) the extent to which DOD and DOE triad acquisition programs face schedule risks, and the implications of delays; and (3) whether DOD and DOE have strategies to mitigate risks to the nuclear deterrent, including acquisition delays. To do this work, GAO analyzed DOD and DOE documentation, interviewed officials, and leveraged GAO work on acquisition best practices, triad systems, and the nuclear enterprise. This is an unclassified version of a classified report we issued in June 2020, and specific classified information has been removed.[Read More…]
- Joint Statement of the 47th U.S.-Israel Joint Political-Military GroupBy Sam NewsJanuary 12, 2021Office of the [Read More…]
- Federal Real Property: Several Factors May Limit Efforts to Reduce Space under New Sale and Transfer ProcessBy Sam NewsDecember 8, 2021What GAO Found The General Services Administration (GSA) is currently in the process of selling federal properties that were recommended for disposal under a new, three-round process established by the Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016 (FASTA). However, as of December 2021, GSA has completed the sales process for only one of the 11 properties recommended by the independent Public Buildings Reform Board (the Board) and approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for disposal in the first (2019) round. GSA officials plan to spend around $19 million out of the $46 million currently available in the newly created Asset Proceeds and Space Management Fund (Asset Proceeds Fund), made available through prior annual appropriations acts, to prepare and sell the properties from the 2019 round. For example, GSA plans to spend around $5 million in disposal costs for one property to close out an existing contract for building services. Any sales proceeds generated from the 2019 round are to be deposited into the Asset Proceeds Fund and used to fund costs associated with implementing OMB-approved Board recommendations in subsequent 2021 and 2024 rounds. Proceeds in the Asset Proceeds Fund are subject to congressional appropriation. Without sales proceeds from the 2019 round, there will be $27 million remaining in the Asset Proceeds Fund to implement the Board's next round of recommendations, which are due to OMB for approval by December 2021. This amount may not be sufficient to prepare properties, which under FASTA, could total up to $2.5 billion in potential sales proceeds. The funding available in the Asset Proceeds Fund, the upcoming December 2021 submission deadline, and uncertainty regarding agencies' future space needs due to the COVID-19 pandemic will limit the Board's next planned submission to OMB, according to Board staff. Specifically, Board staff told GAO that the number, value, and complexity of projects recommended for the 2021 round would be less than initially expected. Characteristics of Planned Submissions for the 2021 Round of the Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016 (FASTA), as of October 2021, as Compared to What Was Initially Expected for the FASTA 2021 Round aBased on statements from Board staff; final submissions subject to change. bPub. L. No. 114-287, § 12(g)(2)(A), 130 Stat. 1463, 1471 (2016). cBased on comments from OMB in the Federal Register. 86 Fed. Reg. 8926, 8927 (Feb. 10, 2021). dFASTA permits the following eight project types for the 2021 round: sales, consolidations, exchanges, co-locations, reconfigurations, lease reductions, lease to private-sector or local entities, and redevelopment. The Board is planning to submit recommendations for one of these project types: sales. Board staff said that the Board plans to submit a larger, more complex list of projects for the final 2024 round, which has a target of up to $4.75 billion in potential sales proceeds. However, the Board's ability to carry out this plan may be constrained by the limited 2021 submission. For example, the outcome of the 2021 round will likely return less than $90 million in proceeds and presumably result in much less funding than expected to prepare properties worth up to $4.75 billion for the 2024 round. Further, it is unclear when any sales proceeds that are deposited into the Asset Proceeds Fund will be made available by appropriations acts, as required by law. Given all of these factors, it is probable that the FASTA process will not meet expectations or provide insight into ways the federal government can more effectively reduce the federal real property portfolio. Why GAO Did This Study FASTA is effectively a 6-year pilot program designed to utilize several concepts that GAO and other stakeholders previously identified and that could help address long-standing challenges, such as the costly and lengthy disposal process, associated with disposal of unneeded facilities. These challenges are, in part, why the management of federal real property has remained on GAO's high-risk list since 2003. FASTA included provisions for GAO to review the Board's identification and selection process and agencies' efforts to implement the Board's recommendations including those from the 2019 round. This report examines (1) the status of properties approved for disposal in the 2019 round and (2) the factors, if any, that limit the future identification of space reduction under FASTA. GAO reviewed FASTA and analyzed documents from the Board, OMB, and GSA to assess the progress made in selling the properties recommended for disposal in the 2019 round and to identify factors that limited the identification of properties as potential candidates for the next FASTA round in December 2021. GAO also interviewed officials from GSA, as well as staff from the Board and OMB. For more information, contact Jill Naamane at (202) 512-2834 or email@example.com.[Read More…]
- Priority Open Recommendations: Department of StateBy Sam NewsMay 26, 2021What GAO Found In April 2020, GAO identified 12 priority recommendations for the Department of State. Since then, State has implemented 3 of those recommendations by, among other things, taking actions to improve embassy construction planning and agency reform efforts. In May 2021, GAO identified 2 additional priority recommendations for State, bringing the total number to 11. These recommendations involve the following areas: improving the security assistance vetting process; improving data quality; improving workforce management; improving embassy construction planning; improving cybersecurity; complying with congressional reporting requirements. State’s continued attention to these issues could lead to significant improvements in its operations. Why GAO Did This Study Priority open recommendations are the GAO recommendations that warrant priority attention from heads of key departments or agencies because their implementation could save large amounts of money; improve congressional and/or executive branch decision-making on major issues; eliminate mismanagement, fraud, and abuse; or ensure that programs comply with laws and funds are legally spent, among other benefits. Since 2015 GAO has sent letters to selected agencies to highlight the importance of implementing such recommendations. For more information, contact Thomas Melito at (202) 512-9601 or firstname.lastname@example.org.[Read More…]
- Deputy U.S. Marshal Charged with Cyberstalking and PerjuryBy Sam NewsMay 14, 2021A federal grand jury in the Central District of California returned an indictment Wednesday charging a Deputy U.S. Marshal with conspiracy to commit cyberstalking, cyberstalking, and perjury.[Read More…]
- Joint Statement by the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear WeaponsBy Sam NewsSeptember 26, 2020Office of the [Read More…]
- Death of European Parliament President SassoliBy Sam NewsJanuary 12, 2022Ned Price, Department [Read More…]
- U.S. Attorney Transition BeginsBy Sam NewsFebruary 9, 2021Continuing the practice of new administrations, President Biden and the Department of Justice have begun the transition process for the U.S. Attorneys.[Read More…]
- Leader of Oath Keepers and 10 Other Individuals Indicted in Federal Court for Seditious Conspiracy and Other Offenses Related to U.S. Capitol BreachBy Sam NewsJanuary 13, 2022A federal grand jury in the District of Columbia returned an indictment yesterday, which was unsealed today, charging 11 defendants with seditious conspiracy and other charges for crimes related to the breach of the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, which disrupted a joint session of the U.S. Congress that was in the process of ascertaining and counting the electoral votes related to the presidential election.[Read More…]
- United States’ Actions To Press for the Resolution of the Crisis in the Tigray Region of EthiopiaBy Sam NewsMay 25, 2021Antony J. Blinken, [Read More…]
- Panama’s Independence DayBy Sam NewsNovember 3, 2020Michael R. Pompeo, [Read More…]
- National Day of the Federated States of MicronesiaBy Sam NewsNovember 2, 2020Michael R. Pompeo, [Read More…]
- Acting Deputy Attorney General John Carlin Delivers Remarks on Domestic TerrorismBy Sam NewsFebruary 26, 2021Thank you, Marc. Before I begin, I’d like to address an important issue: the reports of horrific attacks on Asian Americans across the country. I want to be clear here: No one in America should fear violence because of who they are of what they believe. Period. These types of attacks have no place in our society. We will not tolerate any form of domestic terrorism or hate-based violent extremism, and we are committed to putting a stop to it.[Read More…]